“Smart” Cities And Buildings: The Emergence Of The Cyber Safe Building

The increase in Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled devices and interconnectivity between various building management systems (BMS) prompts larger questions about cybersecurity and data privacy concerns. These challenges are hardly new, but they are magnified in an IoT-connected world.

The Urban Developer reached out to Alan Mihalic, Senior Cyber Security Consultant at Norman, Disney & Young – a global engineering consultancy and cyber security company – to offer an insight into emerging smart technologies and the associated cyber security risk facing the urban planning, construction and design engineering sectors.

Industry forecasts expect the IoT market will grow from an installed base of 15.4 billion devices in 2015 to 30.7 billion devices in 2020 and 75.4 billion in 2025. Many of these devices will be deployed in buildings, public works and critical infrastructure. Smart technologies will establish an urban landscape that is all-connected, all-sharing, all-knowing and imbued with a functionality that can provide unprecedented levels of comfort and convenience.

The convergence of smart technologies and the built environment will improve the operation and capabilities of buildings, but will also lead to increased vulnerabilities and attack vectors not previously encountered within design engineering and urban planning.

Photo: article supplied

Research suggests the impact on the building and construction industry will be significant. No longer are we looking at cyber attacks targeting at the company or user level, we now have “attack vectors” that can potentially shutdown a shopping precinct, a power grid, a major city, perhaps even a nation. An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a malicious outcome. Attack vectors enable hackers to exploit system vulnerabilities.

Earlier this year, an Austrian hotel Romanantik Seehotel Jaegerwirt, was targeted by cyber criminals. The electronic key system at the 4-star hotel was infiltrated, rendering it useless. The hotel guests were unable to move in and out of their hotel rooms and the cyber attackers demanded a ransom of EUR 1500 in Bitcoin from hotel management. The security breach also managed to compromise the hotel’s reservation and cash desk systems, bringing the entire operation to a halt.

Justifying the hotel’s decision to pay the ransom, the managing director stated, “The hotel was totally booked with 180 guests. We had no other choice. Neither police nor insurance companies can help you in these circumstances.”

This article was originally published by The Urban Developer.

Click here to read the entire article.

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Bradley Jones: Smart City Streets

Urban design guidelines and planning instruments of the 1990s adopted a two-level road hierarchy which resulted in no domestic frontage to streets carrying more than 3,000 vehicles per day (vpd).  Since the turn of the century, developers and regulators have challenged the car focus of the two-level road hierarchy having a desire to provide direct frontage to streets carrying more than 3,000vpd.  However, this desire does not resolve the conflicts which arise within a street reserve.

Bradley Jones

For roads carrying up to 10,000vpd it is now accepted that direct access can be provided safely and efficiently.  However, rear laneways are recommended for access to development fronting roads carrying over 10,000vpd.  Rear laneways do not require as much land as service lanes, allow activation of the road frontage, and separate conflicts between access and through traffic.

A pedestrian’s experience of streets was assessed in terms of pedestrian density, driveway conflict and delays crossing carriageways to access a pedestrian path.  It was concluded that pedestrian activity can be promoted by providing a path on at least one side of streets fronted by development.  Pedestrian facilities on streets with no frontage may be underutilised due to pedestrians feeling a reduced sense of safety, security and place.

The level of service (LoS) for cyclists decreases with increasing operating speed for cars except on streets which provide off-road cycle facilities.  Therefore, shared paths or segregated facilities should be provided to accommodate cyclists off carriageway on streets operating above 50km/h.

Public transport (PT) quality was assessed in terms of availability, frequency, travel speed and accessibility.  It was concluded that PT stops should be located on streets with fronting development and a pedestrian path.  PT quality improves with increasing vehicle operating speed.

The LoS for cars improves with increasing vehicle operating speed resulting in a positive correlation with PT quality and a negative correlation with cyclist LoS.  Cars are provided for best on arterial and sub-arterial roads, and in rural areas.  The worst LoS for cars occurs in shared zones and access laneways where the through movement of motor vehicles is not the priority.

By Bradley Jones,  Traffic Engineer at UDP

Biophilia in Urban Design – Patterns and Principles for Smart Australian Cities

Over thirty years ago ecologist EO Wilson proposed the Biophilia hypothesis – a powerful idea which asserts that humans have an instinctive bond with nature and that it is an essential part of our well-being.

The idea was tested over the years and in 2008 the concept of Biophilic Design was formalised and popularised by social ecologist, the late Stephen Kellert, and cohorts. It has been further developed by Peter Newman and others, particularly Tim Beatley who has written extensively about Biophilic Cities. Biophilic design has been codified for commercial acceptance, notably with the 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design, informed by empirical evidence and interdisciplinary analysis of more than 500 peer-reviewed publications and promoted by Terrapin Bright Green LLC.

There is increasing application and acceptance of the hypothesis in Australian planning and design practice, relating human biological science and nature to the design of the built environment, and biophilic patterns and principles can be identified in numerous examples of Australian urban design. However, there is little evidence of the concept being applied to the design, development and operation of smart cities.

Surprisingly, biophilic effects can be achieved with no physical or tangible link to ‘nature’ at all. Indirect experiences of ‘nature’ can generate measurable biophilic psycho-physiological responses, for instance in hospital rooms when people are exposed to images of nature such as artificial sky.

These ‘illusory’ effects may be valuable for environments that cannot readily support real biological systems – such as rooms buried deep inside large buildings. There are parts of our cities where nature struggles to survive; in such places, biophilia may be evoked by technological, rather than biological means. In research with Deakin University my colleagues and I established that places like the new underground railway system in Melbourne justified the addition of another biophilic design ‘pattern’ to describe these ‘virtual’ biophilic effects.

Biophilia enhances well-being. Part of the agenda of smart cities is to do just that. Our research suggests that cities should embed a biophilia ethos in their urban design to ameliorate the negative results of overly reductionist approaches to efficient urbanism.

Paul Downton, Architect & Researcher

Article based on a paper presented at the 9th International Urban Design Conference in Canberra by Dr Paul Downton and colleagues from Deakin University, Prof David Jones and Josh Zeunert.

Smart Cities Council Australia New Zealand Launches

Smart Cities Australia and New Zealand develop smart, sustainable cities
Australia and New Zealand develop smart, sustainable cities

Smart Cities Council Australia New Zealand has launched. It’s part of the growing Smart Cities Council global network of Smart Cities practitioners. The Council’s goal is to make cities liveable, and more sustainable.

Jesse Berst, the Chairman of Smart Cities Council Global acknowledged the sustained efforts in Australia and New Zealand to understand and use technology to develop smart, sustainable cities as reported by The Urban Developer.

“Launching the Council in Australia and New Zealand is the next step in the region’s contribution to solving global problems of climate change and the need to innovate to resolve inequality and deliver economic development,” Mr Berst says.

“Smart Cities Council Australia New Zealand has been positioned as a market accelerator and advisor. Through advocacy and action, capacity building and knowledge sharing, we hope to shape a common language for the market, and support projects, policies and plans that harness the benefits of digital technology and intelligent design,” Mr Berst adds.

Adam Beck is the founding Executive Director for the region. Formerly Director of Innovation at Portland-based think tank EcoDistricts, and prior Executive Director at the Green Building Council of Australia, Mr Beck has a solid reputation in the sustainable cities movement in Australia.

Adam was uniquely impressed with the Smart Cities Council efforts in India, Europe and the USA and resolved to develop a Council uniquely positioned to accelerate the smart cities marketplace in Australia and New Zealand. Adam sees real advantages to being part of the world’s largest network of smart cities practitioners.

“Adam’s depth of experience in city-building, collaboration and helping to build mission-driven organisations is exceptional. His deep knowledge in market transformation practices and sustainable community development will be a significant benefit not only to the Australia New Zealand smart cities market place, but in other regions as well,” Mr Berst says.

Mr Beck says the Council’s first task is to develop and publish a readiness guide for the region.

“The time has come to build on existing successes and unleash the full potential of the smart cities movement here in the region, to apply digital technology and intelligent design practices to build the best cities we can, for our communities to thrive and prosper,” Mr Beck says. to read more click here.

The 9th International Urban Design Conference; Smart Cities for 21st Century Australia – How urban design innovation can change our cities  will be held at Hyatt Canberra from 7th-8th November 2016 with optional tours available on Wednesday 9th November.

Registrations are now open. CLICK HERE to register for the Conference. Early bird closes 26th September 2016 so be quick to receive a discounted rate.

This years’ theme, will focus on an understanding of what makes a city ‘smart’ from a urban design perspective and how the built environment develops during the city planning process.

Keynote Speaker Announcement: Professor Paul Burton, Founding Director, Cities Research Centre, Griffith University on Smart Cities

Burton B&WWe are pleased to announce Professor Paul Burton – Founding Director, Cities Research Centre, Griffith University as a Keynote Speaker at The 9th International Urban Design Conference; Smart Cities for 21st Century Australia – How urban design innovation can change our cities to be held at Hyatt Canberra from 7th-8th November 2016 with optional tours on Wednesday 9th November.

Professor Paul Burton will be speaking on; How smart can a city be? ‘Bringing critical and creative thinking to city planning’.

Smart cities are very popular at present, but it is often unclear what makes a city smart or what a smart city looks like.  Moving beyond limited conceptions of technological fixes to long-standing urban problems, this presentation explores the potential to be more smart in how we plan and manage our cities.  It considers more democratic approaches to planning and the ways in which both critical and creative thinking can be brought to bear when facing the challenges our cities.

Paul Burton is Professor of Urban Management and Planning and Director of the Cities Research Centre at Griffith University.  Previously he headed the School for Policy Studies at the University of Bristol.  Paul is a founding member of Regional Development Australia, Gold Coast and a member of the national education committee of the Planning Institute of Australia.

Paul’s current research interests include the theory and practice of public participation in planning; the everyday professional lives of planners; metropolitan governance and planning for climate change adaptation.

Paul recently led a review of regional and infrastructure planning in Queensland.

The 9th International Urban Design Conference; Smart Cities for 21st Century Australia – How urban design innovation can change our cities  will be held at Hyatt Canberra from 7th-8th November 2016 with optional tours available on Wednesday 9th November.

Registrations are now open. CLICK HERE to register for the Conference. Early bird closes 26th September 2016 so be quick to receive a discounted rate.

This years’ theme, will focus on an understanding of what makes a city ‘smart’ from a urban design perspective and how the built environment develops during the city planning process.

Authors or organisations interested in presenting at the 9th International Urban Design Conference are invited to submit an abstract. To submit an abstract CLICK HERE. Abstracts close 25th July 2016.